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 Expert  715577

Expert in Food Microbiology, Toxicology, Preservation, and Spoilage; Yeasts; Clostridia; Botulinum Toxin

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Wisconsin (WI)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness Market Research

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert's primary area of research is the study of botulinum toxin in the gram-positive pathogen Clostridium botulinum. Much of his work has been devoted to methods for the prevention of toxin formation in foods. He has also contributed to the development of botulinum toxin as a pharmaceutical and in manufacturing botulinum toxins under GMP conditions.

bacterial toxin




Clostridium botulinum


pathogenic bacteria control

Expert's laboratory has investigated the use of naturally occurring antimicrobials to enhance the microbiological safety and to extend the shelf-life of foods. The research has centered on the control of gram-positive bacteria, especially Clostridium botulinum (which causes Botulism) and Listeria monocytogenes. Additionally, they have used antimicrobials to control undesirable microbial changes in foods. A significant part of his group's effort has been dedicated to developing natural antimicrobials including enzymes, lipids, and carbohydrates as preservatives. They also have developed physical methods for inactivation of bacterial spores.

antimicrobial preservation


carotenoid pigment


food antimicrobial additive


food preservation

Expert's research program is dedicated to enhancing the microbiological safety of foods. In particular, he has studied methods and processes to control gram-positive bacterial pathogens in minimally processed and refrigerated foods. These bacterial pathogens are, primarily, Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. His work has involved the detection of botulinum toxins. In addition, he has had extensive experience in the microbiological safety of fermented foods. Expert is an authority in Botulism and other microbial foodborne poisonings, including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria, and other bacteria. He has participated in the investigation of food poisonings and has also been involved in the training of food inspectors through FDA training courses.

bacterial control




food microbiology


food poisoning bacteria control


food-borne illness


microbiology laboratory

The primary area of Expert's university research and industrial involvement is in the microbiological safety of raw and processed foods. He has investigated problems resulting from various microbial pathogens affecting food. Most of his efforts have been in controlling pathogenic gram-positive bacteria, especially Clostridium botulinum. He has also conducted research on other pathogens and spoilage organisms including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and yeasts. His laboratory has conducted numerous challenge studies with pathogens to assess the safety and shelf-life of foods. This testing is particularly important when a food is processed using a new technology (e.g. modified atmosphere packaging, irradiation) or when a food is reformulated. Expert has assisted the food industry in designing safe foods and processes, and in meeting the requirements of regulatory agencies.

food safety

From 1985 to present, Expert has been involved in the production, purification, detection, and scientific and medicinal uses of microbial toxins, particularly botulinum neurotoxin. Detection of clostridial toxins by bioassays and immunological methods has been a research focus of his laboratory. He has made scientific contributions to the control of clostridial infections in humans and animals and in the development of botulinum neurotoxin as a pharmaceutical.

botulinum toxin

A significant portion of Expert's career in food microbiology has involved the development of methods and technologies to prevent the microbiological spoilage of foods. In particular, he has investigated the spoilage of foods by gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

food shelf life testing


food spoilage


food spoilage detection

Botulinum neurotoxin is produced in foods, in wounds, and in the intestine of susceptible infants and adults. Botulinum neurotoxins are produced by certain strains of clostridia. Since they are the most poisonous substances known, they are of considerable concern to the food industry and regulatory agencies. The prevention of botulinum toxin in foods is a primary goal of manufacturers of minimally processed refrigerated foods. Several approaches can be used to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in foods including inactivation of spores, formulation of foods to prevent growth, and processing of foods to eliminate toxin. Food challenge studies and testing for toxin are used to ascertain the effectiveness of preservation strategies.






Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Milwaukee, Wisconsin;  Madison, Wisconsin;  Kenosha, Wisconsin;  Racine, Wisconsin;  Rockford, Illinois;  Aurora, Illinois;  Elgin, Illinois;  Waukegan, Illinois;  Arlington Heights, Illinois;  and Schaumburg, Illinois.

Often requested
with this expert:

Food Protection: Defense & Safety: Sorbic Acid; Microbial...
Food Toxicology and Food Allergies
Food Mycotoxicology, Mold, Aflatoxins, Toxicology
Food Additives and Ingredients, Food Processing

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1983   SCD   Food Microbiology   MIT  
1978   MS   Food Science   University of California, Davis  
1976   BS   Fermentation Science   University of California, Davis  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1996 to


(Undisclosed University)


Food Microbiology and Toxicology/Food Research Institute




Expert directs laboratories that conduct research on the microbiological safety and spoilage of foods. He specializes in prevention of botulinum toxin formation and growth/survival of pathogens and spoilage organisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and yeast and lactic acid bacteria spoilage. He develops formulation strategies to prevent growth of undesirable pathogenic and spoilage organisms. He also assays toxins, particularly botulinum toxin. He has been involved in the production and formulation of botulinum toxin for pharmaceutical uses. Lastly, he conducts research on carotenoid production by yeasts.

1990 to 1995


University of Wisconsin


Food Microbiology and Toxicology/Food Research Institute


Associate Professor


1985 to 1990


University of Wisconsin


Food Microbiology and Toxicology/Food Research Institute


Assistant Professor


1983 to 1985


Harvard Medical School


Dept. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics


Postdoctoral Research Associate/Assistant Instructor


He conducted basic research on the physiology of gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli

1980 to 1983


Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Food Science and Nutrition


Sc.D. Candidate


He studied industrial microbiology and fermentations, specializing in clostridial fermentations and enzyme production

1978 to 1980


Bodega Marine Laboratory/UC Berkeley




Research Technician


He conducted research on the aquaculture of crustacea including lobsters and shrimp.

1972 to 1978


University of California - Davis


Food Science


B.S. and M.S. Candidate


He conducted research on the production of carotenoids, particularly astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia/Xanthophyllomyces

Career Accomplishments:

Expert is an active member of several scientific societies. These include the American Society for Microbiology, the Institute for Food Technologists, the Society for Industrial Microbiology, the International Association for Food Safety and the American Chemical Society.

Professional Appointments

Expert serves on the editorial boards of 5 scientific journals.


He was awarded the Educator Award from the International Association for Food Safety and is was elected to the American Academy of Microbiology. He was also the chair of the Food Microbiology division of ASM in 1997.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has published over 90 research articles, 20 book chapters and has edited one book.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - Manual of Methods for Industrial Microbiology, ASM Press  
 - Bacterial Toxins Methods & Protocols, The Humana Press  
 - Gram-Positive Pathogens  
 - Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Systematic Bacteriology. London  
 - Encyclopedia of Microbiology  

Government Experience:
Years   Agency   Role  
1995 to   USDA/FDA   Reviewer of grant proposals  
1998 to   Army   Reviewer of research activities  

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • Preparation of GRAS petitions for food ingredients
  • Technical reviews and site visits of food ingredient manufacturing facilities
  • Design of food formulation strategies to prevent growth and survival of pathogens and spoilage bacteria and fungi
  • Production of botulinum toxins for non-medical uses.
  • Testing for microbial toxins and pathogens in foods.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Expert in spoilage and food preservation.
  • Expert for consulting on Fish Sauce Fermentation.
  • Food industry expert for consulting on a Food manufacturing facility in Minnesota.
  • Fermentation expert to assist with fermentation process and isolating enzymes.
  • Expert for consulting on Ingredient flavoring, colors and additives.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Expert Witness Experience Summary:
Expert has served as an expert witness in several legal cases involving food recalls and foodborne illnesses.
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert sanitizer for food manufacture.
  • Expert in Food Contamination.
  • Food refrigeration legal expert for consulting on Garlic Cold Storage.
  • Listeria expert for consulting on Listeria contamination of food.
  • Expert in Salmonella Issues for consulting on salmonella in eggs.
  • Botulism expert needed for consulting on Botulism from canned food product.
  • Shellfish expert for consulting on handling, preparation and sale of raw shellfish (oysters).
  • Expert to review patents regarding devices used to detect the presence of microorganizms/pathogens in food.
  • Botulism expert for consulting on seafood poisoning.
  • Food spoilage expert for consulting on mold growth as an indicator of length ot time foos was exposed.
  • Expert in botulism for case involving food poisoning.
  • Expert in intota for consulting on Proposition 65.
  • Expert in needed in fatal food allergy case.
  • Expert in food borne illness and regulatory compliance for litigation in Canada involving the ordinary standard of care to be employed by the CFIA, PHAC and HC.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

International Experience:
Years   Country / Region   Summary
1986 to 1992   EU   Assist in the development in industrial fermentations for yeast carotenoids
1990 to 1994   Pacific Rim   Assist in the development in industrial fermentations for yeast carotenoids. Evaluate nutraceutical technology.
1995 to   South America   Evaluate public health policy for control of foodborne pathogens

Market Research:
Expert has a small business for the supply of microbial toxins for nonmedical uses.

Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your marketing research, industry research, and company research needs.  For research needs involving multiple experts or secondary research, a Research Director can be assigned to coordinate the work into a custom report for you as a potentially quicker and more cost effective alternative to doing this work yourself or hiring a boutique consultancy.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:

Expert has presented seminars and short courses to the Food Industry on food microbiology, emerging trends in foodborne disease, and aspects of food biotechnology.


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